Check back here in September for more information!
Traveling to CMU for TartanHacks2020 was well worth it. Our team learned how to integrate Google Firebase to React web apps, utilize Azure Cognitive Services’ advanced AI/ML APIs and won the Microsoft Hack for Good Challenge! Calling upon mentors that were available 24/7 and being able to troubleshoot technologies with the people that built them made the experience packed with knowledge and very rewarding. The unparalleled support allowed us to get a solution built in a very short time frame. Namely we used Microsoft Azure’s language processing tools: Key Phrasing, Translation, and Text to Speech. These models, especially Key Phrasing in comparison to other open source tools out there, were robust and offered us accurate and nuanced results. View our presentation and our GitHub.
Our prize consisted of a Surface Go for each team member and $1,000 dollars donated to a charity of our choice. We’ve chosen the charity The Last Mile, because we feel that they are doing really impactful work that helps incarcerated folks all the way to workforce reentry, but we also feel that they have an interesting engineering challenge, having to work under the technical restraints of a prison. We’re so excited and grateful for the opportunity to help them further their cause: https://thelastmile.org/
Wendy Boeker (COL 2021 Computer Science and Economics), Karina Chan (COL 2020 Computer Science), Karissa Prayogo (SFS 2020 STIA) , and David Yao (COL 2022 Computer Science and Economics) are students at Georgetown University
Numerous studies have shown that a gender pay gap does exist in the US, and it is substantial in certain industries. In 2017, the ratio of median earnings for full-time year-round workers based on the annual Census Bureau report on income and poverty was shown to be 80 cents for women to every dollar men earned (Hegewisch, 2018). Another recent study indicates that the pay gap is even wider (Rose and Harman, 2018). If we focus in on the tech industry, the gap is significantly smaller. According to Hired.com’s Wage Inequity Report, women were offered 4% less than men for the same job at the same company in 2018, and to date in 2019, they are offered 3% less than men for the same job at the same company. While this is very heartening, the same report finds that in major tech cities like San Francisco, New York, Seattle, and Boston, the average pay gap is higher – between 6% and 9% for women working in similar roles as men. This ‘insignificant’ difference adds up.
Let’s suppose Mary and Joe begin their career at the same time. If Mary starts with a salary of $100,000 and Joe starts with a salary of $106,000, assuming they each work for 25 years and both get a 3% raise each year, Mary will have to work more than a full year longer than Joe to reach the same total compensation. This small example assumed no promotions, bonuses, etc. If those are also included, the gap tends to widen.
So why does this salary discrepancy exist? A little over a decade ago, Babcock and Laschever found that only 7% of women attempted to negotiate their first salary, while 57% of men did. Wow! What a difference. That difference in initial salary as well as subsequent negotiations can add up to over $500,000 during one’s career (Babcock & Laschever, 2007). There are also other reasons, including time off to raise children, etc. But it is this initial salary I want to discuss because this is the situation I see my students grappling with. Using my very small sample of students who have gotten advice from me about their salaries (100s as opposed to 1000s of students), I sense that my male students are more comfortable negotiating a salary than my female students. Because we have a computer science program with a large proportion of female undergraduate students who perform well, I believe that the reasons are less about their education and more about other factors. As I read through literature on the subject, two ideas have begun resonating with me. Even though these ideas are based on what I read in the literature, what follows are my opinions.
The first – determining and understanding one’s value. I have found that my female students tend to believe that the salaries they are given are consistent with (or better than) their expectations. In other words, they equate this expectation with their perceived value. If their expectation is satisfied, they are fine with the salary and prefer to take it rather than have a possible confrontation about salary. I think this lower value or expectation is embedded in our culture. Many of my female students come from families in which their fathers are the primary bread winner. If their mothers do have more established careers, those careers are still viewed as secondary to their fathers’ careers. This may lead to a subconscious, implicit lowering of the value of a woman’s work, and an acceptance of a salary that is lower than it should be.
The second reason I believe this discrepancy exists has to do with a desire to avoid conflict and our willingness to accept a “fair” deal. If women are given a fair deal, they tend to be satisfied and feel no need to ask for a higher salary. Negotiating could lead to an uncomfortable situation, so why bother. If men are given a fair deal, many may be satisfied, but they may still want to see if they can get a deal that is even better. They may want to test the waters. This may be because of a combination of having less aversion to risk and enjoying the idea of haggling or bartering. In the end, it may be less about the final number and more about their interest in going through the negotiation process itself, i.e. playing the game. Again, this is not based on a large-scale empirical study – it is based on my own experiences mentoring students, and yes, I have some students who do not fit this scenario.
But if the female and male students I interact with are the norm and not the exception, and if these are two of the primary issues associated with the discrepancy, how do I help my female students start at an equal level of compensation to their male colleagues? How do I convince my female students who may have been brought up in a different way than their male peers to engage in negotiation and view it as a necessary and “adventurous” part of the hiring process? Here are a few suggestions that have been helpful to some of my recent female graduates. I should mention that I think many of these suggestions are just as useful for my male students.
- GATHER SALARY DATA – Don’t just blindly say ‘yes’ to an offer. Thank the company for the offer and even if you feel the offer is perfect, find out what the average salary for that position is in your location. If your salary offer is below the average, let the company know that you are concerned about starting below the average and show them the evidence that others with your same level of experience are making more in similar positions. All the hiring job sites have salary comparison tools. These tools help you determine your market value. If you are a fresh graduate, your value may not be that different from your peers. But if you have more strong internships and/or research experience, highlight them.
- TALK TO FRIENDS – Talk to male friends and see what they are getting. I know that people sometimes feel uncomfortable talking to peers about salary. If you are hesitant to do that, go to a professor or the Career Center to talk more about this.
- BE YOURSELF – Studies show that there is a social cost for women who initiate a salary negotiation (Bowles, Babcock, & Laii, 2007). Women may get the salary they want, but they may also be perceived as aggressive. It is important that women be aware of this. At the same time, it is important to help change this perception. While this suggestion may be controversial, I suggest women not attempt to emulate their male peers in the way they ask for salary adjustments. Being assertive may backfire and be interpreted as domineering or aggressive. I understand what I am suggesting is “not equitable”. Men and women should be able to negotiate the same way and get the same outcome. While I hope we get to that point soon, we are not there yet. You were given the offer because of your skill and your interactions with people in the company – all I am suggesting is that you not change the way you interact because you are negotiating. It may come across the wrong way.
- LEARN NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES – Because many women have not been trained in how to effectively negotiate, we may be too direct when we go into a negotiation, particularly when we negotiate for ourselves. Therefore, read about different negotiation strategies (some resources are listed below), and practice with your roommate or someone at the Career Center. If you practice, you will get better. But remember even if you do not feel confident after you practice or feel that you are ‘good’ at it, that does not mean you should not negotiate. When you avoid negotiating, you are choosing to not participate in the full interview process. This may lead the employer to believe they could have offered you an even lower salary, possibly resulting in lower salary offers for women who are hired after you.
- BE A GOOD SPORT – It is important to not take the negotiation process personally. View it as a puzzle or a game. Unless you are explicitly told that salaries at the company are never negotiated, the company expects you to negotiate. And just like a game, you cannot get upset if you do not get what you want. It is poor manners. Learn from the experience and move forward.
- KEEP IT PROFESSIONAL – Male or female, I believe it is better to be professional, friendly, and calm, rather than demanding, overly chatty, and unfocused.
- SALARY IS ONLY ONE PIECE – If you really cannot bring yourself to negotiate your salary, ask for other forms of compensation or increases in other forms of compensation – moving expenses, start-up funds (academia or research position), vacation time, a larger office, a fancier computer, a faster promotion schedule, etc.
The most important thing to remember is that the worst that can happen is that the company says “no”. Then you get the salary they originally offered. In the best case scenario, you get what you ask for and even if there is a little bit of a social cost upfront, you are getting the salary you deserve. Not negotiating is a disservice to not only yourself and your hard work, but also to other women who are trying to negotiate. It further propels the stereotype that women who negotiate are pushy. Another important outcome is that you likely raise the salary for the next female who gets an offer. You are helping to adjust the baseline.
I must be completely honest. I have never negotiated my salary. I have always taken the salary or raise I was given. Why? Similar to my students, it seemed fair and reasonable. I also began my career when salary tools that exist today were not available. I have also never complained about a raise, even if I thought it was unfair. While I feel perfectly comfortable helping everyone else and giving them any negotiation insight I can, I have to admit my own failure to recognize that I needed help. By not negotiating, I have certainly left thousands of dollars in lost earnings on the table.
I only recently learned how small differences in compensation early in one’s career add up over time. I know a number of women at similar stages in their careers who are great negotiators. I think they had good mentors and developed good strategies through the years. That is what I want for all of my students – to not go through the early part of your careers being intimidated or reluctant to negotiate. Take a risk. Learn now. Make mistakes now. Negotiate to help yourself.
Everyone needs to fight for compensation equity across gender and racial lines. Otherwise another generation will go through what my generation has. Let’s all push to make compensation equity a reality. Let’s all participate in the game.
Additional resource list:
Lisa Singh is a professor at Georgetown University and co-founder of <guWeCode>
I thought my goals were ambitious. I wanted to help change the face of computer science at Georgetown University. Specifically, over a ten year period, my goal was to work towards increasing the percentage of women majoring (graduating) in computer science from under 20% to close to 40%. Given all the stereotypes, all the industry scandals and manifestos, the lack of role models and mentors, the lack of work-life balance in the industry, etc., getting to 40% seemed like a steep, but possible climb.
I am now in year four of this ten year plan and to my surprise, this year’s graduating class in computer science was 50% female. Yes, let me repeat that – the 2018 undergraduate senior class in computer science at GU graduated 50% women and 50% men – stunning, amazing, awesome, wow!! A gender balanced graduating class in four years.
I have spent the last few weeks reflecting about how this happened – how did we reach this milestone so quickly? What were the significant events and activities? How do we make sure this is not a one year mirage? This blog post is my reflection on how we beat expectations (at least my expectations) and my advice to other departments wanting to strive toward gender balance in their undergraduate computer science student body.
What follows is a list of conditions that promote gender balance – a to do list of sorts. While I would not consider these requirements, the more of these conditions that exist, the faster the march toward gender balance and increased diversity.
Lisa’s To Do List:
- Your department needs one or more faculty champions for women’s issues who are willing to build and foster a community for women that is nurturing, active, and useful.
- Your department must create and promote a faculty culture that supports and encourages faculty to spend time teaching different groups of students concepts in different ways. Women cannot be made to feel “dumb” in class, particularly by male faculty. When women raise their hands in class, call on them and help them think through questions/answers if they get the answer wrong.
- The coursework in your department should be fairly gender neutral.
- Your department must be active. But the activities you choose should map to the culture of your department. For example, students in the CS department at Georgetown like casual events that include some food. So many events we planned were of that flavor.
- You need clubs, classes, and/or programs that connect computer science to different student interests, social causes and societal issues. A large complaint girls and women have about computer science is the feeling that the discipline does not help others. This is a falsehood that needs to be actively fought.
- Your department needs to help foster a culture in which male students consider female students equal peers who are just as capable as they are. This is hard to do because it involves tackling stereotypes. Selecting both men male and female students for research support, as teaching assistants, or for programming teams can increase opportunities for different groups of students to interact and showcase their strengths.
- Departments and universities need to provide funding for events focused on supporting women – networking sessions, coding parties, panels, etc.
- Funding also needs to be available for female students and faculty to attend diversity conferences, participate in undergraduate research, and develop new clubs they are interested in fostering.
Everything I am suggesting is also useful for improving other types of diversity, but my focus in this blog is about women in computing. I would like to say that the eight steps for success are easy to do, but they are not. They take time and commitment. They need to be embraced by all the faculty, not just one or two champions. It truly takes a village.
While I believe GU did all eight steps, I am going to highlight specific things that I believe mattered through this process. Each one individually may not have been the most impactive – collectively, these things seem to matter. Once again, this is just my opinion, not necessarily that of the faculty as a whole. There may be other events or decision that I was either not aware of or just forgot about. I also think that groups like code.org and Girls Who Code are also helping this trend and are important for improving gender balance.
We had enormous institutional financial support for events, groups, and outreach that support women.
University Support Shout Out:
- Department of Computer Science
- University Information Systems (UIS)
- Provost’s Office
- Dean’s Office
- Luce Foundation
- Anonymous Donor
Talk about your curriculum informally
Different faculty discussed curriculum changes for the undergraduate CS program – nothing formal was implemented, but many faculty took discussions to heart and thought about whether or not their course materials were gender biased or not. Casual discussions can go a long way. Forcing change leaves a bitter taste.
Lead a women’s group
In 2014, we began a new women’s coding group – GU Women Coders. Initially, this group was focused on coding literacy, but it has morphed into a group focused on building a strong CS community for newbies, majors, and everyone in between who are interested in programming and technology. This group hosts 5 to 7 events per semester and sponsors a Women’s Coding Week (fall) and a Women’s Coding Party (spring). We engage both men and women computer science majors to help with mentoring activities at different events. This engagement increases awareness and mutual respect amongst the students. The group also has an Executive Board composed of women from around campus (students and employees), not just computer science majors.
Prior to 2014, we did have a CS Women’s group that socialized once a semester to talk about women’s issues as they related to computer science classes, internships, etc. While this did not increase the number of women in the major or bring more women into CS, it helped retain women in CS. Both types of groups are important if your department has the bandwidth.
Connect your community to other communities
Georgetown hosted the 2017 ACM CAPWIC (Capital Area Women in Computing) conference. All the women who were seniors that year participated in the program and/or volunteered time to help with the conference.
GU has hosted Girls Who Code every summer since it came to DC (3 years in a row). Some of our female undergraduates participated in teaching for that program.
GU hosts an annual Hackathon that has always included a Diversity Hack as one of the tracks. Two female undergraduates spearheaded the GU Hackathon (HoyaHacks) because they wanted GU to be on the map for CS. They also wanted to actively meet other female CS majors. HoyaHacks is now in its fourth year. CodeForGood also came to GU this year to host their RubyForGood Hackathon – developing software for social good causes.
Help students who want to connect computer science to others
When our women succeed, we tell people about it.
- In 2017 the top three academic students were all women.
- In 2017 all the CS honors students were women.
- In 2017 and 2018 the CS award given to one senior each year was won by women. [In the last 15 years, only 1 other woman has won that award.]
Purposely be diverse
Our faculty think a lot about diversity when selecting students for different events. For example, when we build our ACM Programming Competition teams each year, we think about engaging both men and women. Last year at the John’s Hopkins regional site, our teams were two of a very small number of teams that had women on them.
Women in technology related fields still have a long way to go – diversity needs to improve in the workplace, in CS graduate programs, and among CS faculty. But this is an important first step. Good job GU computer science faculty, staff, and students – leading on this important issue shows that with a little effort, gender balance in CS can be achieved.
Lisa Singh is a professor at Georgetown University and co-founder of <guWeCode>
I had no idea what I wanted to do when I started college. I came in as a chemistry major, but I wasn’t convinced that I wanted to go down that path. My roommate has a note on her computer of all my various plans at different times– “government major, econ minor,” “art history major, psychology minor,” “double major chemistry and English.” During winter break my freshman year, I started an HTML and CSS tutorial on Code Academy because I was bored and a friend recommended it. I enjoyed it, but I didn’t think much of it– it was just something I was doing to fill my time during break. Early the next semester, an e-mail blast went out about a new group on campus for women interested in learning how to code. It was such a funny coincidence given my recent interest, so I decided to go to the first GU Women Coders meeting.
Through the Python lecture series that they put on, I learned my first bit of programming. I soon realized that I loved solving the puzzles and working through solutions, especially when I was able to work them out with other people. I signed up for my first computer science course the fall of my sophomore year, and I declared my major that spring. Now, after graduating in May, I work for an organization called TEALS that helps high schools build and grow their computer science programs, with the hope that many more people (especially young women) will be exposed to the varied paths that computer science has to offer sooner than I was. If it hadn’t been for the supportive environments of both GU Women Coders and the CS department at Georgetown, who knows how much longer that note on my roommate’s phone would be.
Maya McCoy is a 2017 graduate of Georgetown University.
This is a critical time. We need children and adults to transition from being technology consumers to becoming technology producers and innovators. Just as we worried about reading literacy in the 80s, we need to worry about computer literacy now. Otherwise, we will create a large divide between those who understand how technology works and those who can merely use it. Coding is the key to obtaining computer literacy. Coding teaches you how to solve problems. Coding teaches you how to organize your thoughts in new ways. Coding stretches your mind.
Even though there are so many benefits to coding, a small number of girls and women are involved in coding. Only 18% of undergraduate degrees in computer science are awarded to women (see https://www.ncwit.org/). Computer science is the only field in science, engineering and math in which the number of women receiving a college degree has deceased since 2002. While there has been a recent increase in college degrees in computer science the last few years, the number of men getting a college degree in computer science is rising faster. If you look at the top employers in Silicon Valley, including Facebook, Google, Twitter, and Apple, over 70% of the workforce is male. In some cases, the female technical workforce is only 10% (Fortune Magazine, 2015).
This was not always the case. There was a time when the number of women in technology was 20 to 30 percent higher than today. But over the last few decades, our culture has encouraged young women to play with dolls instead of robots. Personal computer applications were designed for boys not girls. And the stereo-typical computer scientists was an awkward geek who smelled funny, wore large rim glasses, had acne, and cared about playing and programming video games that blew things up.
Well, I am a bit of a geek, I don’t think I smell funny, and I am a pacifist that works on data privacy and data mining for the social good. I am in computer science to find ways to create technology to help solve some of our largest societal problems, including forced migration. Computer science is bigger and broader than its stereotype. Ladies, this is a call to all of you.
It is time to change the image of a computer scientist.
It is time for girls and women to be a significant part of this technology revolution.
Lisa Singh is a professor at Georgetown University and co-founder of <guWeCode>
Dr. Elizabeth Sigman is an OPIM (Operations and Information Management) professor at Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business. She serves as the departmental coordinator and advisor for the OPIM major. Sigman specializes in technology, social media, electronic commerce and information systems.
What is the OPIM field?
The OPIM field includes operations and information management and decision sciences. These are all really hot areas for hiring right now. We have students doing all kinds of jobs coming out of the OPIM major. Some go to work for high-tech companies, some become entrepreneurs, some go to investment banks and do operations there, or do finance with a background in data. We have people that go into data jobs as well as people that go into social media jobs. Right now we have students at Facebook, Google, and other very exciting companies!
What got you interested in the OPIM field?
I’ve always been a data person. My dad used to draw normal curves on napkins when I was a little kid; it was only natural that I would always been interested in data! I’ve always been fascinated by it and I’ve always been fascinated by the way it can be used for better decision-making. I just think the power of data is so important today for making decisions to have the impact that you want. I think it is hugely important that people understand data and understand how to use it to help the business world, as well as the world at large.
What do you think about women in OPIM?
My classes are pretty much evenly split actually! There are a lot of women that come to Georgetown and have an interest in data. I haven’t seen a huge difference in the number of men and women in my classes.
What do you think about women in STEM?
I think the opportunities are so vast out there. I think it is a wonderful field for women to be in right now. There are a lot of jobs out there in this area—huge, well-paying jobs, important jobs, jobs that will help change the world. I think it is a really great time to be a woman in STEM.
What do you attribute to the lack of women in the STEM field?
I think sometimes women aren’t encouraged as much as men to go into the STEM fields, but I think now, more and more women that are global leaders have become interested in STEM. So that is definitely changing! There are a lot more role models for young women out there and I think you will see more and more women seeking out this field.
Compared to when you were growing up, what is different today regarding women in STEM?
I think there is more interest now with women in STEM than when I was growing up. I’ll always be thankful that I took two computer science classes when I was in college. I think that was life-changing in some ways—to know how to code. I did an assembly language, which not many people learn nowadays. But it was really tough and we had to learn about all the registers—but it was formative and it was really helpful to do that. I was a political science major undergrad, but I always wanted to do statistical and quantitative political science. I think that’s what ties my whole career together, which is working with data.
Do you consider yourself a feminist? What connotation does it have in today’s society?
I want women to have the opportunities that they want. I’m a huge family person. I have four kids. I think there are a lot of options open to women: I have worked full-time, part-time, stayed at home. I think women should balance their lives as they see fit. Every woman is going to make different choices and I think it is nice to have those options. Women can help each other with their choices.
Sonya Patel is a junior in the McDonough School of Business.